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Hyalinobatrachium aureoguttatum Barrera-Rodríguez & Ruiz-Carranza (1989)

Sun's glass frog (Coloma, L. A., S. Ron. 2001.Coloma L. A., J. M. Guayasamin 2011–2014)



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  Centrolenidae: Hyalinobatrachium aureoguttatum  

Barrera-Rodríguez, M. y Ruiz-Carranza, P. M. 1989. Una nueva especie del género Centrolenella Noble 1920 (Amphibia: Anura: Centrolenidae) de la Cordillera Occidental de Colombia. Trianea 77–84.

Centrolenidae: Hyalinobatrachium aureoguttatum   Centrolenidae: Hyalinobatrachium aureoguttatum   Centrolenidae: Hyalinobatrachium aureoguttatum   Centrolenidae: Hyalinobatrachium aureoguttatum   Centrolenidae: Hyalinobatrachium aureoguttatum   Centrolenidae: Hyalinobatrachium aureoguttatum   Centrolenidae: Hyalinobatrachium aureoguttatum
  Borde 1


It is distributed from southeast Panamá, in the Pacific lowlands and western versant of Cordillera Occidental of Colombia, to northwestern Ecuador.

Altitudinal zones: Western Tropical and subtropical (45–1560 m).

Ecoregions: Western Humid Forests, Western Foothills. It occurs in provinces: Esmeraldas, Imbabura.

The type locality is "Colombia, Departamento del Chocó, vertiente occidental de la cordillera Occidental, Municipio El Carmen de Atrato, Km. 23 carretera El Carmen-Quibdo, 5°47 latitud N y 76°20W, 1030 m.s.n.m."


Habitat and biology

It is a nocturnal frog from premontane and lowland tropical rainforests of the Chocó region. It is found in primary and secondary forests. The vegetation in this region corresponds to Lowland Evergreen Forest. Annual rainfall in the region is from 199 to 975 mm, and mean annual temperature is 24.9°C. In one study site (stream Viborita, Valle del Cauca, Colombia) the average temperature was 25°C, humidity 73%, the water flux was 0.4 m/s, canopy cover varied from 75 to 100%. Males were found garding nests in large leaves (long and wide) of various types of riparian plants (Heliconia spp., Anthurium sp., Calathea sp., Cyclanthus sp., Musa sp., Philodendron sp., and Sapotaceae), between 7 m and 60 cm above water. In Colombia amplectant pairs and egg masses were found between July and September (in 1987 and 2011). The males call and attend the clutches on the underside of leaves protruding above the streams. The males have a high fidelity to their territory; each male repeatedly use the same leave for perching, singing, mating and caring for the clutches. Males are grouped at distances ranging from 30 to 50 cm; therefore, more than one male can stay in othe other leaves of the same plant. The males are active from 17:30 to 5:00 hours. No fighting or aggressive behavior has been observed if and intruder enters the resident territory. However, movements by the resident frog result in the intruder going away. The amplexus is axillary and performed by midnight on the undersides of the leaves. The clutch of eggs is deposited at the same site of amplexus. Females leave the leave almost immediately after oviposition. The male stays close, touching or sitting in one to five clutches (at different stages of development) during the day and night, during most of embryonic development. Brief interruptions occur in the care of the brood either to feed or soak, during or after rains. In some cases care last throughout the development time until the tadpoles hatch, whereas in other case the male leaves 3–4 days before. Males vocalize only when embryos are freshly laid. The behavior of parental care includes hydration, cleanliness, and the defense of the eggs. Clutches (being cared or abandoned) may be preyed upon by arthropods such as ants, spiders or opilionids; however, the behavior of the male can gard off the predator and save the clutch. Male parental care increase embryo survival and reproductive success. The clutch has 39 green eggs on average (maximum 52), coated with a translucent mucilaginous mass. Larvae hatch after or during heavy rainfall, after 17 days of oviposition. (Barrera-Rodríguez y Ruiz-Carranza 1989Barrera-Rodríguez y Ruiz-Carranza 1989; Ibáñez et al. 1999Ibáñez et al. 1999; Terán-Valdez et al. 2009Terán-Valdez et al. 2009; Ortega-Andrade et al. 2010Ortega-Andrade et al. 2010; Valencia-Aguilar et al. 2012Valencia-Aguilar et al. 2012; Morales-Mite et al. 2013Morales-Mite et al. 2013)



Data on mitochondrial and nuclear genes suggests that its sister species is H. valerioi (Guayasamin et al. 2009Guayasamin et al. 2009, Castroviejo-Fisher et al. 2014Castroviejo-Fisher et al. 2014, Hutter et al. 2013Hutter et al. 2013). Castroviejo-Fisher et al. (2014)Castroviejo-Fisher et al. (2014) discuss aspects of the biogeographic evolution of Hyalinobatrachium and provide a reconstruction of its ancestral range. Hutter et al. (2013)Hutter et al. (2013) provide data on divergence times and ancestral reconstruction of distribution areas; they also discuss the evolutionary and ecological processes that explain their distribution pattern.

Barrera-Rodríguez y Ruiz-Carranza (1989)Barrera-Rodríguez y Ruiz-Carranza (1989) provide data on external morphology, photographs of the holotype, and illustrations of the hand and foot of a paratype. Ruiz-Carranza y Lynch (1991)Ruiz-Carranza y Lynch (1991) published an illustration of the humerus. Ibañez et al. (1999)Ibañez et al. (1999) describe the tadpole in Stage 25. Barrera-Rodríguez (2000)Barrera-Rodríguez (2000) describes, illustrates (skull dorsal, ventral, hyolarinx apparatus, pectoral girdle, spine, appendicular elements, mandibular musculature, intermandibular and crural), and compares osteological and myological characters. Coloma y Ron (2001)Coloma y Ron (2001), Ron et al. (2009)Ron et al. (2009), y Morales-Mite et al. (2013)Morales-Mite et al. (2013) published photos. Terán-Valdez et al. (2009)Terán-Valdez et al. (2009) redescribed the tadpole in several stages, including information on their ontogenetic variation, tadpole photographs, and oral apparatus, and an illustration of the latter. This species is distinctive for its large yellow spots on the back. The tadpole is unique by having a M-shaped upper jaw. Adults have a transparent pericardium and liver while the visceral peritoneum is white. Nuptial pads are barely visible on the outer edge of the inner finger.


Conservation status

Not included in CITES. Near Threatened, according to Solís et al. (2010)Solís et al. (2010).

In Ecuador this species is known from a few localities in the Chocó ecoregion (Bustamante et al. 2007Bustamante et al. 2007), an area under constant pressure from deforestation. Despite its local abundance in several places and adaptability to some degree of modification, this species faces severe threats from habitat destruction, intensive agriculture and livestock, pollution, use of chemicals, mining, urban development. Reproduction and ex situ management have been successful and since 2014 is part of the program of bio-commerce by the Wikiri Company.

En Ecuador no ha sido registrada en las áreas protegidas públicas, mientras que ha sido encontrada en la Reserva Biológica Canandé, la cual es privada.


Presence at protected areas

In Ecuador, it has not been recorded from public reserves, but it occurs in Reserva Biológica Canandé, which is a private reserve.


Additional information

Barrera-Rodríguez y Ruiz-Carranza (1989)Barrera-Rodríguez y Ruiz-Carranza (1989), Ruiz Carranza et al. (1996)Ruiz Carranza et al. (1996), Ibáñez et al. (1999, 2000)Ibáñez et al. (1999, 2000), Acosta-Galvis (2000)Acosta-Galvis (2000), Cisneros-Heredia y McDiarmid (2007)Cisneros-Heredia y McDiarmid (2007), Bustamante et al. (2007)Bustamante et al. (2007), y Castro-Herrera y Vargas-Salinas (2008)Castro-Herrera y Vargas-Salinas (2008) provide data on distribution. Stuart et al. (2008)Stuart et al. (2008) y Ortega-Andrade et al. (2010)Ortega-Andrade et al. (2010) provide a summary account. Terán-Valdez et al. (2009)Terán-Valdez et al. (2009) published data on tadpole rearing. Köhler (2011)Köhler (2011) makes comparisons in Central America, provides a map and photograph. Valencia-Aguilar et al. (2012)Valencia-Aguilar et al. (2012) describe aspects of reproductive ecology and behavior of a population of the Pacific lowlands of Colombia.

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